United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), also known as the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland and is a member of the United Nations Development Group.[1] The UNHCR has won two Nobel Peace Prizes, once in 1954 and again in 1981.[2]

Following the demise of the League of Nations and the formation of the United Nations the international community was acutely aware of the refugee crisis following the end of World War II. In 1947, the International Refugee Organization (IRO) was founded by the United Nations.[3] The IRO was the first international agency to deal comprehensively with all aspects pertaining to refugees’ lives. Preceding this was the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, which was established in 1944 to address the millions of people displaced across Europe as a result of World War II.[3]

In the late 1940s, the IRO fell out of favor, but the UN agreed that a body was required to oversee global refugee issues. Despite many heated debates in the General Assembly, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was founded as a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly by Resolution 319 (IV) of the United Nations General Assembly of December 1949. However, the organization was only intended to operate for 3 years, from January 1951, due to the disagreement of many UN member states over the implications of a permanent body.[3]

UNHCR’s mandate was originally set out in its statute, annexed to resolution 428 (V) of the United Nations General Assembly of 1950. This mandate has been subsequently broadened by numerous resolutions of the General Assembly and its Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).[3] According to UNHCR,

[its] mandate is to provide, on a non-political and humanitarian basis, international protection to refugees and to seek permanent solutions for them.[3]

Soon after the signing of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, it became clear that refugees were not solely restricted to Europe. In 1956, UNHCR was involved in coordinating the response to the uprising in Hungary. Just a year later, UNHCR was tasked with dealing with Chinese refugees in Hong Kong, while also responding Algerian refugees who had fled to Morocco and Tunisia in the wake of Algeria’s war for independence. The responses marked the beginning of a wider, global mandate in refugee protection and humanitarian assistance.[3]

Decolonization in the 1960s triggered large refugee movements in Africa, creating a massive challenge that would transform UNHCR; unlike the refugee crises in Europe, there were no durable solutions in Africa and many refugees who fled one country only found instability in their new country of asylum. By the end of the decade, two-thirds of UNHCR’s budget was focused on operations in Africa and in just one decade, the organization’s focus had shifted from an almost exclusive focus on Europe.[3]

In the 1970s, UNHCR refugee operations continued to spread around the globe, with the mass exodus of East Pakistanis to India shortly before the birth of Bangladesh. Adding to the woes in Asia was the Vietnam war, with millions fleeing the war-torn country.[3]

The 1980s saw new challenges for UNHCR, with many member states unwilling to resettle refugees due to the sharp rise in refugee numbers over the 1970s. Often, these refugees were not fleeing wars between states, but inter-ethnic conflict in newly independent states. The targeting of civilians as military strategy added to the displacement in many nations, so even ‘minor’ conflicts could result in a large number of displaced persons. Whether in Asia, Central America or Africa, these conflicts, fueled by superpower rivalry and aggravated by socio-economic problems within the concerned countries, durable solutions continued to prove a massive challenge for the UNHCR. As a result, the UNHCR became more heavily involved with assistance programs within refugee camps, often located in hostile environments.[3]

The end of the Cold War marked continued inter-ethnic conflict and contributed heavily to refugee flight. In addition, humanitarian intervention by multinational forces became more frequent and the media began to play a big role, particularly in the lead up to the 1999 NATO mission in Yugoslavia, while by contrast, the 1994 Rwandan Genocide had little attention. The genocide in Rwanda caused a massive refugee crisis, again highlighting the difficulties for UNHCR to uphold its mandate, and the UNHCR continued to battle against restrictive asylum policies in so called ‘rich’ nations.[3]

UNHCR was established on 14 December 1950[4] and succeeded the earlier United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. The agency is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another state, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country.

UNHCR’s mandate has gradually been expanded to include protecting and providing humanitarian assistance to whom it describes as other persons “of concern,” including internally displaced persons (IDPs) who would fit the legal definition of a refugee under the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization for African Unity Convention, or some other treaty if they left their country, but who presently remain in their country of origin. UNHCR presently has major missions in Lebanon, South Sudan, Chad/Darfur, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Afghanistan as well as Kenya to assist and provide services to IDPs and refugees.

To achieve its mandate, the UNHCR engaged in activities both in the countries of interest and in countries with donors. For example, the UNHCR hosts expert roundtables to discuss issues of concern to the international refugee community.

Most Palestinian refugees – those in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan – do not come within the responsibility of the UNHCR, but instead come under an older body, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). The UNRWA has a much broader definition of “refugee” than the UNHCR, including not only refugees themselves but their descendants in perpetuity; however, it only covers refugees stemming from the 1948 and 1967 Arab-Israeli wars. Other Palestinian refugees outside of UNRWA’s area of operations do fall under UNHCR’s mandate, if they meet the UNHCR’s more limited definition of refugee.

Several new programs have recently been introduced to support and to heighten awareness of the issues faced by refugees around the world. These two new programs are a product of the benchmarks set out by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

Since 1954, the UNHCR Nansen Refugee Award has been annually awarded to a person or an organization in recognition of outstanding service to the cause of refugees, displaced or stateless people.

The UNHCR itself was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1954 and 1981.The UNHCR has been chosen for the prestigious Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development 2015

Refugee camp in Darfur (Chad)

A helicopter arrives at a refugee facility in Macedonia with an underslung load of Aid

Trucks loaded with supplies drive across the border from Turkey into Iraq to take part in Operation Provide Comfort, a multinational effort to aid Kurdish refugees

An UNHCR-officer talks with a Marine during Exercise Eager Lion 12

Workers from the UNHCR, and CARE International gather bundles of shelters and mosquito nets in Kenya

Heavily fortified UNHCR offices in Somaliland

The UNHCR’s Mid-Year Trends report of June 2015 (based on information for mid-2015 or latest available information up to that date) reported an “unprecedented” 57,959,702 individuals falling under its mandate (for reference, on January the 1st, 2007, 21,018,589 people – or less than half of the number in 2015 – fell under the mandate of the UNHCR). The sharp increase was mainly attributed to the Syrian Civil War, “with the outbreak of armed crises or the deterioration of ongoing ones in countries like Afghanistan, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Somalia, South Sudan and the Ukraine contributing to prevailing trends.”[5]

Persons of concern include refugees and asylum-seekers, people in refugee-like conditions, internally-displaced people (IDPs), stateless persons and “others of concern to the UNHCR”.

Sorted by the UNHCR bureau in which asylum is sought, the number for June 2015 included:

As of April 2008, the UNHCR employed a staff of 6,351 people in 117 countries.[6]

The current High Commissioner is Filippo Grandi, who has held the post since 1 January 2016.[7] The post of High Commissioner has been held by:[8]

Prior to the establishment of UNHCR, Fridtjof Nansen was the League of Nations High Commissioner of the Nansen International Office for Refugees, from 1922.

After 10 years serving as a Goodwill Ambassador, Angelina Jolie was promoted in 2012 to Special Envoy to the High Commissioner. In this role she represents the UNHCR and High Commissioner António Guterres at the diplomatic level and works to facilitate long-term solutions for people displaced by large-scale crises, such as Afghanistan and Somalia. “This is an exceptional position reflecting an exceptional role she has played for us,” said a UNHCR spokesman.

UNHCR is also represented by a number of UNHCR Goodwill Ambassadors, who at present are:

Previous ambassadors include:

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), also known as the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland and is a member of the United Nations Development Group.[1] The UNHCR has won two Nobel Peace Prizes, once in 1954 and again in 1981.[2]

Following the demise of the League of Nations and the formation of the United Nations the international community was acutely aware of the refugee crisis following the end of World War II. In 1947, the International Refugee Organization (IRO) was founded by the United Nations.[3] The IRO was the first international agency to deal comprehensively with all aspects pertaining to refugees’ lives. Preceding this was the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, which was established in 1944 to address the millions of people displaced across Europe as a result of World War II.[3]

In the late 1940s, the IRO fell out of favor, but the UN agreed that a body was required to oversee global refugee issues. Despite many heated debates in the General Assembly, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was founded as a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly by Resolution 319 (IV) of the United Nations General Assembly of December 1949. However, the organization was only intended to operate for 3 years, from January 1951, due to the disagreement of many UN member states over the implications of a permanent body.[3]

UNHCR’s mandate was originally set out in its statute, annexed to resolution 428 (V) of the United Nations General Assembly of 1950. This mandate has been subsequently broadened by numerous resolutions of the General Assembly and its Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).[3] According to UNHCR,

[its] mandate is to provide, on a non-political and humanitarian basis, international protection to refugees and to seek permanent solutions for them.[3]

Soon after the signing of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, it became clear that refugees were not solely restricted to Europe. In 1956, UNHCR was involved in coordinating the response to the uprising in Hungary. Just a year later, UNHCR was tasked with dealing with Chinese refugees in Hong Kong, while also responding Algerian refugees who had fled to Morocco and Tunisia in the wake of Algeria’s war for independence. The responses marked the beginning of a wider, global mandate in refugee protection and humanitarian assistance.[3]

Decolonization in the 1960s triggered large refugee movements in Africa, creating a massive challenge that would transform UNHCR; unlike the refugee crises in Europe, there were no durable solutions in Africa and many refugees who fled one country only found instability in their new country of asylum. By the end of the decade, two-thirds of UNHCR’s budget was focused on operations in Africa and in just one decade, the organization’s focus had shifted from an almost exclusive focus on Europe.[3]

In the 1970s, UNHCR refugee operations continued to spread around the globe, with the mass exodus of East Pakistanis to India shortly before the birth of Bangladesh. Adding to the woes in Asia was the Vietnam war, with millions fleeing the war-torn country.[3]

The 1980s saw new challenges for UNHCR, with many member states unwilling to resettle refugees due to the sharp rise in refugee numbers over the 1970s. Often, these refugees were not fleeing wars between states, but inter-ethnic conflict in newly independent states. The targeting of civilians as military strategy added to the displacement in many nations, so even ‘minor’ conflicts could result in a large number of displaced persons. Whether in Asia, Central America or Africa, these conflicts, fueled by superpower rivalry and aggravated by socio-economic problems within the concerned countries, durable solutions continued to prove a massive challenge for the UNHCR. As a result, the UNHCR became more heavily involved with assistance programs within refugee camps, often located in hostile environments.[3]

The end of the Cold War marked continued inter-ethnic conflict and contributed heavily to refugee flight. In addition, humanitarian intervention by multinational forces became more frequent and the media began to play a big role, particularly in the lead up to the 1999 NATO mission in Yugoslavia, while by contrast, the 1994 Rwandan Genocide had little attention. The genocide in Rwanda caused a massive refugee crisis, again highlighting the difficulties for UNHCR to uphold its mandate, and the UNHCR continued to battle against restrictive asylum policies in so called ‘rich’ nations.[3]

UNHCR was established on 14 December 1950[4] and succeeded the earlier United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. The agency is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another state, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country.

UNHCR’s mandate has gradually been expanded to include protecting and providing humanitarian assistance to whom it describes as other persons “of concern,” including internally displaced persons (IDPs) who would fit the legal definition of a refugee under the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization for African Unity Convention, or some other treaty if they left their country, but who presently remain in their country of origin. UNHCR presently has major missions in Lebanon, South Sudan, Chad/Darfur, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Afghanistan as well as Kenya to assist and provide services to IDPs and refugees.

To achieve its mandate, the UNHCR engaged in activities both in the countries of interest and in countries with donors. For example, the UNHCR hosts expert roundtables to discuss issues of concern to the international refugee community.

Most Palestinian refugees – those in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan – do not come within the responsibility of the UNHCR, but instead come under an older body, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). The UNRWA has a much broader definition of “refugee” than the UNHCR, including not only refugees themselves but their descendants in perpetuity; however, it only covers refugees stemming from the 1948 and 1967 Arab-Israeli wars. Other Palestinian refugees outside of UNRWA’s area of operations do fall under UNHCR’s mandate, if they meet the UNHCR’s more limited definition of refugee.

Several new programs have recently been introduced to support and to heighten awareness of the issues faced by refugees around the world. These two new programs are a product of the benchmarks set out by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

Since 1954, the UNHCR Nansen Refugee Award has been annually awarded to a person or an organization in recognition of outstanding service to the cause of refugees, displaced or stateless people.

The UNHCR itself was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1954 and 1981.The UNHCR has been chosen for the prestigious Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development 2015

Refugee camp in Darfur (Chad)

A helicopter arrives at a refugee facility in Macedonia with an underslung load of Aid

Trucks loaded with supplies drive across the border from Turkey into Iraq to take part in Operation Provide Comfort, a multinational effort to aid Kurdish refugees

An UNHCR-officer talks with a Marine during Exercise Eager Lion 12

Workers from the UNHCR, and CARE International gather bundles of shelters and mosquito nets in Kenya

Heavily fortified UNHCR offices in Somaliland

The UNHCR’s Mid-Year Trends report of June 2015 (based on information for mid-2015 or latest available information up to that date) reported an “unprecedented” 57,959,702 individuals falling under its mandate (for reference, on January the 1st, 2007, 21,018,589 people – or less than half of the number in 2015 – fell under the mandate of the UNHCR). The sharp increase was mainly attributed to the Syrian Civil War, “with the outbreak of armed crises or the deterioration of ongoing ones in countries like Afghanistan, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Somalia, South Sudan and the Ukraine contributing to prevailing trends.”[5]

Persons of concern include refugees and asylum-seekers, people in refugee-like conditions, internally-displaced people (IDPs), stateless persons and “others of concern to the UNHCR”.

Sorted by the UNHCR bureau in which asylum is sought, the number for June 2015 included:

As of April 2008, the UNHCR employed a staff of 6,351 people in 117 countries.[6]

The current High Commissioner is Filippo Grandi, who has held the post since 1 January 2016.[7] The post of High Commissioner has been held by:[8]

Prior to the establishment of UNHCR, Fridtjof Nansen was the League of Nations High Commissioner of the Nansen International Office for Refugees, from 1922.

After 10 years serving as a Goodwill Ambassador, Angelina Jolie was promoted in 2012 to Special Envoy to the High Commissioner. In this role she represents the UNHCR and High Commissioner António Guterres at the diplomatic level and works to facilitate long-term solutions for people displaced by large-scale crises, such as Afghanistan and Somalia. “This is an exceptional position reflecting an exceptional role she has played for us,” said a UNHCR spokesman.

UNHCR is also represented by a number of UNHCR Goodwill Ambassadors, who at present are:

Previous ambassadors include:

Media Relations Software Eliminates The Chance Of Pr Blunders

Media Relations Software Eliminates the Chance of PR Blunders

by

johnhendr

Corporate communicators in this first decade of the 21st century can genuinely say they have never had it so bad. PR blunders are so much easier to commit now than even a decade ago, and certainly a lot easier than fifty plus years ago.

Good media relations software that presents a united PR front is the best solution to prevent any of the communicators in your organisation or company doing a Ratner referencing Gerald Ratner s off the cuff remark in 1991, which saw his business lose some 500 million in value, resulting in a business that had been expanding year on year since 1966 almost crashing.

Branding and image is everything especially in the vacuous early years of the 21st century, and with a modern press pack resembling a pack of jackals lying in wait to ambush the unprepared prey that is the unwary communicator, any assistance a beleaguered press office or communications department can obtain from good media relations software can just mean the difference between surviving, thriving or dying.

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The modern press pack have no patience in waiting around to hear from a spokesman or woman of a company doling out a pre prepared press release on a cold Friday afternoon; what they want is a word from anyone, anywhere NOW.

And if they cannot get it from official sources, they are quite prepared to get it from other sources. They will be in contact with other stakeholders; employees, trade unions, government bodies and investors.

Protecting stakeholder relationships is of the utmost importance and any company or organization that values its good name and reputation should seriously consider the repercussions of not knowing or understanding who the stakeholders are, their ever changing needs and preferences, and the best practice guidelines for keeping in touch.

Good media relations software aids companies and organizations in protecting reputations by additional and further effective and operational management of stakeholder relations and associations.

Further, any organisation that places high value on its good name, integrity and demands should always consider treating stakeholders as a strategic resource.

One-size fits all media relations software solutions are no longer able to do the job simply because the communications or PR department in a public sector organisation or department is completely different from those of a FTSE listed company.

Choosing very different media relations software that can be adapted to your organisational needs can all be obtained from a single source, with over 16 years in media and PR solutions

AI Media have customised media relations software and media relations software solutions for your organisation to benefit from. Check them out at http://www.aimediacomms.com today.

AI Media have customised

Media Relations Software

and media relations software solutions for your organisation to benefit from. Check them out at http://www.aimediacomms.com today.

Article Source:

ArticleRich.com

FEMA accused of misusing trained disaster workers as public-relations workers

Monday, September 12, 2005 

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is being criticized for misallocation of personnel in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. FEMA representatives said they requested volunteers from fire departments around the U.S., to handle its community relations campaign. However, a document FEMA sent to local fire departments asked for firefighters with very specific skills and who were capable of working in “austere conditions”. Fire departments around the nation responded by sending crews to the FEMA staging ground in Atlanta. Some of these crews were unaware that they were only going to be used for public relations work. Others, however, merely hoped that FEMA would allocate them to rescue and damage control operations once it saw their qualifications.

The firefighter’s objections are particularly poignant as one of FEMA public relations training seminars coincided with New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin plea for firefighters on national television, to relieve his own exhausted crews. It is unclear if FEMA’s request for firefighters prevented any municipalities from responding to Mayor Nagin’s request.

Some firefighters have objected to their use as FEMA public relations officers because their municipalities must bear the cost of their salaries, as well as endure reduced firefighting capacity. FEMA has stated that it sought to use firefighters to avoid background checks required of federal employees.

Firefighters began receiving their assignments Monday, September 5th. Among these was a crew of 50 assigned to tour the devastated areas with President Bush and the press.

Facebook hired PR firm to discredit Google, reveals leaked correspondence

Thursday, May 12, 2011 

Facebook hired a public relations firm to systematically discredit Google by paying two journalists to plant negative pieces in U.S. newspapers, leaked correspondence discloses. The new revelations are likely to increase tension between the two companies, which are already fierce rivals.

The social network has confirmed the validity of the leaked emails, seen by Wikinews, which suggest executives at the social networking giant hired Burson-Marsteller, a high profile PR and communications firm, to discredit Social Circle, a rival website run by Google. Burson-Marsteller then recruited two journalists — Jim Goldman and John Mercurio — to push editors at The Washington Post and USA Today to publish editorials criticising Social Circle over its privacy settings. The story was exposed after Burson-Marsteller approached a blogger to publish the propaganda, but the blogger posted the correspondence online.

Burson-Marsteller has been forced to apologize for taking on Facebook as a client, admitting the orders to discredit Google violated company policy. “The assignment on those terms should have been declined,” a spokesperson said. The revelations are likely to be incredibly damaging for the firm, who have represented a number of controversial clients in the past. Facebook, however, said the allegations against Google were valid, insisting there were genuine privacy concerns with Social Circle. Google has declined to comment on the issue.

European Parliament rejects computer-implemented inventions directive

Wednesday, July 6, 2005  File:European-parliament-strasbourg.jpg

The European Parliament has rejected the directive on the patentability of computer-implemented inventions (software patent directive) sustained by lobbies of large software publicists such as the corporations Microsoft, Siemens, Nokia and Alcatel, grouped under the title of the European Information & Communications Technology Industry Association (EICTA, [1]). The directive involved the granting of software patents.

648 MEPs out of 680 rejected the text, 18 voted for and 14 abstained.

A rejection vote became the expected outcome when the European People’s Party, initially in favour of the directive, decided to reject it.

The European Greens, Socialist Group and European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party also voted for rejection of the directive for heterogeneous reason. Michel Rocard, author of a number of amendments to the original directive, said that the majority of the modifications were unlikely to be supported by the Commission and Council, with whom the Parliament would have had to enter a Conciliation procedure if it had voted for maintaining the directive in moditifed form. “Better have no text at all than a bad one”, he added.

Before the vote, Rocard pointed at the irritation of the Parliament towards the Commission: “There is collective anger throughout the Parliament because of the way the directive was handled by the Commission and the Council”.

During the debate on Tuesday, Commissioner Joaquín Almunia told MEPs: “Should you decide to reject the common position, the Commission will not submit a new proposal.”.

The rejection was welcomed by small and medium software companies, as well as by Free Software supporters. The Directive had been subject to an intense campaigning, within the Parliament, in the news media and on the Internet. The supporters of the Council position appear to have spent several ten millions, hiring prestigious PR agencies with at least 30-40 lobbyists who roamed the halls of the Parliament every day for 3 months, and many full-page advertisements in EU newspapers such as European Voice, EU Reporter etc. The opponents of software patentability (that is supporters of the position taken by the European Parliament in its 1st reading of 24 September 2003), coordinated under the roof of the Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure (FFII), also had several lobbyists stationed in Brussels, conducted several conferences and demonstrations and published some newspaper advertisements, with a total budget of nearly 100,000 eur apart from countless unpaid working hours of a dedicated supporter base, consisting mainly of programmers and software entrepreneurs.

Bankruptcy Law Changes Designed To Hold Debtors Accountable

By Legal Helpers

Under pressure from retailers and other companies claiming losses from increased bankruptcy filings, congress took steps a few years ago to make it more difficult for individuals to file for bankruptcy. Initially, bankruptcy laws were designed to help people, whose financial debt got out of control and were meant to be a method of giving them a new start.

However, over the years many were taking advantage of the bankruptcy laws to continually file bankruptcy as often as allowed by law to get out of paying their financial obligations. This overuse of the system led to more stringent rules to protect creditors often the loser in cases with people who worked the system to their advantage. New laws were designed to prevent those from simply getting out of their obligations.

For those who fall into out-of-control debt, the bankruptcy laws exist to help them make a fresh start. Providing the need for financial and debt management as part of the bankruptcy process will provide the needed help while sifting out those individuals who use the bankruptcy laws to simply create debt and have it wiped out by the court periodically.

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In most instances the laws still allow for discharging all legally dischargeable debt for those whose only way out is through bankruptcy. However, it also makes it tougher to meet the demands of the new laws. This may prevent some people from filing for bankruptcy, either Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 from seeking the help offered through bankruptcy, only making their financial life more miserable.

In 2005, the U.S. government seemed to agree with lobbyists for credit companies and determined that too many debtors were allowed to get out from under their self-created debt by filing for bankruptcy. Many were pointing to a few cases in which people with the means to make good on their obligations were simply filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy and leaving the creditor holding the balance.

The new law, which was supposed to provide additional help to consumers in handling their credit load, also added many requirements, including the need to go through credit counseling services before filing bankruptcy. The counseling is also to provide alternatives to bankruptcy, attempting to move more people from Chapter 7 bankruptcy into a plan that will provide the creditors receiving payments through Chapter 13 filings.

The new bankruptcy laws added extra burdens for the debtor as well as the attorneys, which not only increased the amount of information collected for bankruptcy filings, but also included many new financial requirements that are beginning to resemble the current income tax code. In order to understand the new rules and regulations as well as the reporting requirements, many attorneys will need to specialize in bankruptcy.

There are also penalties in the new law for both attorneys and clients who willfully attempt to use inaccurate information in a bankruptcy petition. If a violation is found by the court, the attorney fees and client costs can be claimed by the court trustee, giving the trustees more incentive to more carefully review all filings in the court.

About the Author: Legal Helpers is a debt relief agency helping people to file for bankruptcy relief under the bankruptcy code. We’re one of the largest consumer bankruptcy firms.

Bankruptcy attorneys

answer the phones six days a week and evenings.

Source:

isnare.com

Permanent Link:

isnare.com/?aid=206674&ca=Finances

UK vending machines begin selling sex toys

Thursday, March 9, 2006 

Bars and nightclubs in London, Manchester, and Newcastle, UK, now carry vending machines selling sex toys for about £5. These fuchsia-pink Tabooboo machines are usually located near toilets to render deliberating customers a modicum of privacy. However, some hairdressing salons are giving the machines “center stage”. Products available from these unconventional vending machines include mini vibrators, “silicone ticklers”, “lust fingers”, and bottles of “love liquid” (an edible lubricant).

The Alphabet Bar in London’s West End, host to the first sex toy vending machine in the U.K., claims many people visit especially for the machine, and describes it as a “great success”. Alan Lucas, the managing director of the company behind this enterprise, Tabooboo, suggests that the success of the machines is due to younger people having a more liberal view of sex toys. He stated, “The most popular product is a vibrating rod ring which is something [the man] wears [on his penis]”.

The machines are expected to begin appearing in the U.S. and Italy.

Muslim hair stylist sues hairdresser over alleged discrimination

Friday, November 9, 2007 

British-born Muslim hair stylist Bushra Noah is currently undertaking legal action against the owner of a hair salon for alleged religious discrimination. Noah is suing London hair salon owner Sarah Desroiser. Desroiser who runs a salon in King’s Cross, has said that she would not accept Noah as a stylist if Noah’s hair was covered. Noah, like many devout Muslims keeps her hair covered in public places, believing it to be immodest otherwise.

Noah claims that her headscarf is a fundamental part of her religious beliefs and that wearing the scarf would not interfere in her carrying out the job at all. Desrosiers said that it is not discrimination but rather that “the essence of my line of work is the display of hair. To me, it’s absolutely basic that people should be able to see the stylist’s hair. It has nothing to do with religion. It is just unfortunate that for her covering her hair symbolises religion.” Desosiers added that she had worked with Muslims in the past and employs a Muslim accountant.

Noah claims that the state of her own hair is irrelevant to her ability to style others hair.

The last few years have seen a string of similar cases in Britain. Last year, there was a case over whether a British Airways employee could wear a prominent cross, and another case in which a teacher argued that she had a right to wear a Jilbāb (a traditional Islamic dress that covers almost the entire body) in the classroom. In that case, the teacher lost in the High Court.

UK vending machines begin selling sex toys

Thursday, March 9, 2006 

Bars and nightclubs in London, Manchester, and Newcastle, UK, now carry vending machines selling sex toys for about £5. These fuchsia-pink Tabooboo machines are usually located near toilets to render deliberating customers a modicum of privacy. However, some hairdressing salons are giving the machines “center stage”. Products available from these unconventional vending machines include mini vibrators, “silicone ticklers”, “lust fingers”, and bottles of “love liquid” (an edible lubricant).

The Alphabet Bar in London’s West End, host to the first sex toy vending machine in the U.K., claims many people visit especially for the machine, and describes it as a “great success”. Alan Lucas, the managing director of the company behind this enterprise, Tabooboo, suggests that the success of the machines is due to younger people having a more liberal view of sex toys. He stated, “The most popular product is a vibrating rod ring which is something [the man] wears [on his penis]”.

The machines are expected to begin appearing in the U.S. and Italy.